On the topic of Star Trek Teleporters, they do indeed route power to the transporter to overcome interference. However, they have in many instances needed to reconfigure the transporter to get it to work, sometimes even requiring as much as winging it in hopes it will work. There are several scenes in which the transporter could not fully lock on to a target and attempted to transport may not work as a result. Also keep in mind that for ship to ship teleport, they had to lower shields to both ships and generally transported either to the other ships transporter pad or to the hold. They did sometimes in an emergency teleport directly to the bridge or other areas of the ship, but I assume it was quite dangerous.